Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

Research News

2015 CSE Graduate Student Honors Competition Highlights Outstanding Research

Biruk Mammo was the winner of the 2015 CSE Graduate Student Honors Competition. The competition culminated on November 23, when four finalists presented on an area of their research, with a panel of CSE faculty and industry sponsors from Northrop Grumman ranking the presentations. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Graduate Students  Lab-Computer Engineering (CE Lab)  

Ford, Michigan Researchers Test First Autonomous Vehicle at Mcity

Profs. Edwin Olson and Ryan Eustice, working with Ford Motor Company, have been the first to test a fully autonomous vehicle at the University's Mcity test facility. The Ford vehicle features sensing and AI technology developed at Michigan. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Autonomous Vehicles   Lab-Artificial Intelligence  Olson, Edwin  Transportation  

The Promise and Perils of Predictive Policing Based on Big Data

Given our ability to sift through big data and to make predictions from it, we should not be surprised to learn that police departments are using data analysis to move toward "predictive policing." In this article, Prof. HV Jagadish comments on the potential benefits and pitfalls of such approaches. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Big Data  Jagadish, HV  Lab-Software Systems  

U-M Leading International Neurotechnology 'Dream Team' for Brain Research and Education

A "dream team" of experts in sensors, electronics, data analysis and neuroscience has been awarded a $5 million grant to help unravel the mysteries of the brain and cross-train an international group of neuroscientists and engineers. The project is directed by Prof. Euisik Yoon, and includes experts and partner institutions around the world. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Brain  International Prog. for the Adv. of Neurotechnology  Lab-Solid State Electronics (SSEL)  Sensors  Solid-State Devices and Nanotechnology  Wise, Kensall  Yoon, Euisik  

The Future of Data Science: Kicking Off U-Ms Proactive Step into an Exploding Field

Researchers from around the nation gathered at Rackham on October 6 to celebrate the official launch of Michigans $100M Data Science Initiative. Central to this program is the new Michigan Institute for Data Science (MIDAS), which aims to make sense of the massive datasets researchers in every field now have at their disposal. The symposium, titled The Future of Data Science: A Convergence of Academia, Industry, and Government, was an all-day event featuring representatives of many major industries and academic institutions. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Autonomous Vehicles   Big Data  Data Centers  Health  Hero, Alfred  Lab-Radiation (RADLAB)  Lab-Systems  Michielssen, Eric  

Phosphorescent OLEDs glow deep blue - almost ready for prime time

A new molecule developed by researchers at the University of Michigan and the University of Southern California shines a deep blue that is close to meeting the stringent brightness requirements of the National Television Systems Committee. "Bright, deep blue, phosphorescent emitters have been very elusive. Our work has resulted in deep, display quality blue at very high efficiency and extremely high brightness," said Stephen Forrest, the Peter A. Franken Distinguished University Professor of Engineering and Paul G. Goebel Professor of Engineering. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Displays  Forrest, Stephen  LEDs  Lab-Solid State Electronics (SSEL)  

Getting the Light Out (of OLEDs)

Researchers at the University of Michigan have discovered a way to get 50% more light out of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), bringing them one step closer to more widespread adoption as a general lighting source, while increasing their value in displays. OLED technologies, a nearly $16B market, are already found in more than 750 million smartphone and tablet screens worldwide. The appearance of OLED technology in the world of general lighting is steadily growing, and as of 2014 can even be found in lighting fixtures sold at Home Depot. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Forrest, Stephen  Lab-Solid State Electronics (SSEL)  Lighting  

Layered Graphene Beats the Heat

An international team of researchers, led by Ted Norris, Gerard A. Mourou Professor, have found that a layered form of graphene can expel heat efficiently, which is an important feature for its potential applications in building small and powerful electronics. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Graphene  Lab-Optics and Photonics  Norris, Theodore B.  Optics and Photonics  

Inspired by art, lightweight solar cells track the sun

Solar cells capture up to 40 percent more energy when they can track the sun across the sky, but conventional, motorized trackers are too heavy and bulky for pitched rooftops and vehicle surfaces. Now, by borrowing from kirigami, the ancient Japanese art of paper cutting, researchers at the University of Michigan have developed solar cells that can have it both ways. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Energy  Environment  Forrest, Stephen  Lab-Solid State Electronics (SSEL)  Research  Solar Cell Technology  

Glucose Monitoring with Lasers

200 million estimated people with diabetes might one day utilize laser research going on at the University of Michigan to painlessly read their glucose levels. Professor Mohammed Islam is leading the reconstruction of super continuum lasers he designed to aid the military detect the chemical composition in camouflage nets and explosives into a non-invasive tool to measure a teaspoon of glucose in the blood system. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Health  Islam, Mohammed  Lab-Optics and Photonics  Lasers  

U of Michigan Project Combines Modeling and Machine Learning

This article in HPC Wire highlights ConFlux, the unique new facility, funded largely by NSF, to be built at Michigan which will enable supercomputer simulations to interface with large datasets while running. Prof. Barzan Mozafari will oversee the implementation ConFlux. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Big Data  Lab-Software Systems  Mozafari, Barzan  Supercomputing  

Michigan Researchers Win Best Paper Award at VLDB 2015

Prof. H.V. Jagadish, the Bernard A. Galler Collegiate Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, and CSE graduate student Fei Li have received the Best Paper Award at the 41st International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, which took place Aug 31st - Sept 4th in Kohala Coast, Hawaii. Their paper is entitled "Constructing an Interactive Natural Language Interface for Relational Databases". [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Big Data  Jagadish, HV  Lab-Software Systems  

University of Michigan Develops Social Sensory Surfaces for Autism Therapy [Video]

This story on WDET covers the work of students from EECS and the School of Art and Architecture in creating a blend of light, music, and structure to provide highly sensory experiences for children with autism spectrum disorder. Prof. Sean Ahlquist is interviewed; Dr. David Chesney appears in the video. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Chesney, David  Engineering for the Greater Good  Technology and Wellness  

Michigan Rolls a Different Kind of Car off a Different Kind of Assembly Line

This story on the Big Ten Network highlights the work of Prof. Edwin Olson, who is using 3-D printed low-speed electric vehicles provided by alternative carmaker Local Motors to develop an intelligent transportation on demand system built around autonomous vehicles. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Artificial Intelligence  Autonomous Vehicles   Lab-Artificial Intelligence  Olson, Edwin  Transportation  

Mary Lou Dorf Wins Best Paper Award at ASEE

Dr. Mary Lou Dorf and her collaborators have received the Best Paper Award at the 122nd American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference and Exhibition (ASEE) for their paper entitled, "Student Performance Improvement using Interactive Textbooks: A Three-University Cross-Semester Analysis." [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Dorf, Mary Lou  Technology for Education  Women in Computing  

Researchers Employ Unsupervised Funniness Detection in the New Yorker Cartoon Caption Contest

Researchers including Prof. Dragomir Radev and his former student and alumnus Rahul Jha teamed up with Bob Mankoff, Cartoon Editor for The New Yorker, to take a computational approach to understanding humor. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Big Data  Lab-Artificial Intelligence  Radev, Dragomir  

Improving the image quality of ultra-low dose CT scans with big data

Prof. Jeffrey Fessler is collaborating with alumnus Prof. Yong Long on research that aims to provide high image quality CT scans while reducing the X-ray radiation dose to an ultra-low level. The team expects to achieve dramatically improved results by including big data analysis of existing CT images in their approach. Prof. Fessler's research in medical imaging is one of five joint projects to receive continued funding as part of the University of Michigan and Shanghai Jiao Tong University Collaborative Research Programs for Energy and Biomedical Technology. The program funds projects that have commercial potential and are likely to attract follow-on research funding from the U.S. and Chinese governments, as well as industry. [read the announcement in The University Record] [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Fessler, Jeffrey  Lab-Systems  Medical Imaging  

An Autonomous "SmartCart" Testbed is Coming to Michigan

Researchers led by EECS Prof. Edwin Olson and NAME Prof. Ryan Eustice will be using 3D printed "SmartCarts" at Mcity to develop an on-demand autonomous transit system. The focus of this particular project is not the autonomy itself, but the challenges of an intelligent transit system that include understanding passengers' preferences and expectations, coordinating the routes of a fleet of vehicles, and figuring out how to balance supply and demand. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Autonomous Vehicles   Lab-Artificial Intelligence  Olson, Edwin  

Next generation laser plasma accelerator

Michigan is part of a multi-institution collaboration to develop key laser technology that will enable the design a high-power, ultra-short-pulse laser system which is expected to enable new low-cost, compact accelerator-based light sources for a wide variety of biological, chemical, materials science, and security applications. The technology may also lead to compact, portable TeV (tera electron volt) linear colliders, and enable the same kind of research now being conducted in conventional accelerators, such as the 17 mile Large Hadron Collider, on a table top. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Center for Ultrafast Optical Science (CUOS)  Galvanauskas, Almantas  HERCULES  Lab-Optics and Photonics  Lasers  Optics and Photonics  Optoelectronics  

Researching the Future of Remote Sensing

ECE researchers will explore the fundamental capabilities of remote sensing through a new grant funded by NASA. Directed by Kamal Sarabandi, Rufus S. Teesdale Professor of Engineering, the new program aims to create theoretical models for remote sensing of ice and snow. Specifically, the research seeks to develop a better understanding of wave propagation and scattering, and to improve tools for future monitoring. This work could feed into the development of new sensors for a variety of remote sensing applications. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Environment  Lab-Radiation (RADLAB)  Remote Sensing  Sarabandi, Kamal  

New Michigan-Saudi Arabia Collaboration Promises Exciting New Research - Beginning with the Auto Industry

A new collaborative research center, called the Center of Excellence for Microwave Sensor Technology, has been established between ECE faculty and Saudi Arabias King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). The Center will be a major site for research in microwave sensor technology, with the first projects focusing on autonomous vehicles and novel approaches to electric vehicle charging. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Applied Electromagnetics and RF Circuits  Automotive industry  Autonomous Vehicles   Lab-Radiation (RADLAB)  Sarabandi, Kamal  

Michigan Researchers Win Both Best Paper Awards at AAMAS 2015

Michigan researchers won both best paper awards at the International Conference on Autonomous Agents & Multiagent Systems 2015, which took place May 4-8 in Istanbul, Turkey. The two winning papers were selected from a field of 127 full paper submissions in the main technical track. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Artificial Intelligence  Baveja, Satinder Singh  Graduate Students  Lab-Artificial Intelligence  Wellman, Michael  

Mud-Fueled Smart Sensors for the Bottom of the Ocean

If you put tiny electrodes in the mud on the ocean floor, you can harvest enough energy to power a tiny sensor platform that can monitor whats going on at those depths. The sensing platform draws just 2 nanowatts, and is part of a broader portfolio of work focused on powering electronic systems with low energy sources. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Blaauw, David  Integrated Circuits and VLSI  Internet of Things  Lab-Michigan Integrated Circuits (MICL)  Sensors  Sylvester, Dennis  

Michigan Researchers Win Best Poster Award at MobiSys 2015

CSE graduate student researchers Shichang Xu, Ashkan Nikravesh, Hongyi Yao (University of Michigan), David R. Choffnes (Northwestern University) with advisor Prof. Z. Morley Mao have won the Best Poster Award at MobiSys 2015. The poster describes their work in measuring important network phenomena for debugging problems at the edge of a cellular network. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Graduate Students  Lab-Software Systems  Mao, Zhuoqing Morley  Mobile Computing  Wireless Communications  

What makes cancer cells spread? New device offers clues

Why do some cancer cells break away from a tumor and travel to distant parts of the body? A team of oncologists and engineers from the University of Michigan teamed up to help understand this crucial question. Prof. Euisik Yoon led the engineering team that created a new device that is able to sort cells based on their ability to move. Cancer becomes deadly when it spreads, or metastasizes. Not all cells have the same ability to travel through the body, but researchers dont understand why. This study is a step towards coming to that understanding. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Health  Lab-Solid State Electronics (SSEL)  MEMS and Microsystems  Solid-State Devices and Nanotechnology  Yoon, Euisik  

Computer Engineering Research Lab Explores the Bounds of Computer Integration

The new Computer Engineering Lab at U-M is the successor to the 30-year-old ACAL Lab and is home to researchers who are looking to stretch the definition of how computational systems are designed and employed. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Bertacco, Valeria  Lab-Computer Engineering (CE Lab)  

Space Tethers Can Be Used to Fling Spacecraft Into Interplanetary Space

Brian Gilchrist is collaborating with NASA researchers and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory to develop space tethers - a means to "fling" spacecraft further into interplanetary space. Electromagnetic tethers on already-orbiting or space bound satellites could be used to move a spacecraft in space without any propellant whatsoever. The tether could be used to deorbit out-of-use spacecraft, push spacecraft from low Earth orbit into higher orbits, or even push spacecraft out of Earth's orbit altogether. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Gilchrist, Brian E.  Lab-Radiation (RADLAB)  

Designing Machines - Can we create machines who learn like we do?

Technology certainly seems smart now - phones listen and talk, computers interpret images and video - but in spite of that, the field of artificial intelligence might best be described as a hot mess: an assortment of intriguing pieces that have yet to be integrated into a truly intelligent system. This article in looks at some of those pieces and how they might fit together. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Artificial Intelligence  Lab-Artificial Intelligence  Lab-Solid State Electronics (SSEL)  Laird, John  Lee, Honglak  Lu, Wei  Memristor  Solid-State Devices and Nanotechnology  

Worlds Largest Processor Announced; Perfect for Big Data and Other Applications

Computer architecture researchers in the Computer Science and Engineering division of the EECS Department at the University of Michigan have announced a new paradigm in the evolution of computer development: the worlds largest processor chip, designed for big data. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Lab-Computer Engineering (CE Lab)  

Security Flaw in New South Wales Puts Thousands of Online Votes at Risk

A security flaw detected by Prof. J. Alex Halderman and Dr. Vanessa Teague of the University of Melborne may have exposed thousands of votes to manipulation during a six-day period of online voting in New South Wales, Australia. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Digital Democracy  Halderman, J. Alex  Lab-Software Systems  Security (Computing)  

Michigan Micro Mote (M3) Makes History

Michigan Micro Mote (M3), the worlds smallest computer, is taking its place among other revolutionary accomplishments in the history of computing at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, CA. Measuring in at less than a half a centimeter, it is a fully autonomous computing system that acts as a smart sensing system. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Blaauw, David  Dutta, Prabal  Integrated Circuits and VLSI  Internet of Things  Lab-Michigan Integrated Circuits (MICL)  Sensors  Sylvester, Dennis  Wentzloff, David  

Meet Sirius: An Open-Source Digital Assistant

CSE researchers have introduced Sirius, an open-source computing system designed to spark a new generation of intelligent personal assistants for wearables and other devices. Core functionalities include speech recognition, image matching, natural language processing, and a Q&A system. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Cloud Computing  Computer Architecture  Data Centers  Lab-Computer Engineering (CE Lab)  Mars, Jason  Tang, Lingjia  

EE Times Highlights ECE Research at ISSCC

EE Times offered 18 Views of ISSCC through photos of some of the most interesting and cutting-edge products and research shown at the event. They showcased research by Prof. Blaauw, Prof. Sylvester, and graduate student Wootaek Lim. The chip is an ARM Cortex-M0+ running off a 0.09mm2 solar cell that puts out 400 picowatts, thanks to novel circuits designed to suppress power leakage. Electronics360 previewed the work, calling it a stand-out paper. [Electronics360 preview]
Related Topics:  Blaauw, David  Integrated Circuits and VLSI  Lab-Michigan Integrated Circuits (MICL)  Sylvester, Dennis  

Prabal Dutta Selected for Sloan Research Fellowship

Professor Prabal Dutta has been selected for a Sloan Research Fellowship for his work in developing energy-scavenging sensors and wireless communications, mobile-sensor-interfaces, and "Smart Dust" system architecture. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Computer Architecture  Dutta, Prabal  Internet of Things  Lab-Computer Engineering (CE Lab)  Sensors  

J. Alex Halderman Selected for Sloan Research Fellowship

Professor J. Alex Halderman has been selected for a Sloan Research Fellowship for his work in the science of computer and network security with an emphasis on problems that broadly impact society and public policy. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Cryptography  Digital Democracy  Halderman, J. Alex  Lab-Software Systems  Security (Computing)  Security (national and personal safety)  

Jacob Abernethy Receives NSF CAREER Award

Prof. Jacob Abernethy has received an NSF CAREER Award for his research project, "CAREER: Machine Learning through the Lens of Economics (And Vice Versa)," to investigate the relationship between machine learning and microeconomic theory. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Abernethy, Jake  Artificial Intelligence  Economic Systems  Lab-Artificial Intelligence  Machine Learning  

Grant Schoenebeck Receives NSF CAREER Award

Prof. Grant Schoenebeck has received an NSF CAREER Award for his research project, "CAREER: Social Networks Processes, Structures, and Algorithms," to develop a rigorous theoretical understanding of complex networks. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Lab-Theory of Computation  Schoenebeck, Grant  Social Media  Theory  

Jason Corso Receives Google Faculty Research Award

Prof. Jason Corso received a 2015 Google Faculty Research Award to further his research in computational learning from instructional video content. His goal is to develop a consistent and reliable method for producing a visual and textual summary of any video that describes a process - from simple sandwich how-to's to more elaborate technical processes. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Artificial Intelligence  Computer Vision  Corso, Jason  Lab-Systems  Machine Learning  Robotics  

CSE Graduate Student Develops Lower-Cost Self-Driving Car Navigation System

CSE graduate student Ryan Wolcott has developed a navigation system for autonomous vehicles that leverages game technology and which could eliminate the need for expensive laser-scanning sensor systems. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Artificial Intelligence  Autonomous Vehicles   Graduate Students  Lab-Artificial Intelligence  

Researchers Gather at CSE for Midwest Theory Day

Computer scientists and mathematicians from across the greater midwest region gathered at CSE on December 6, 2014 for the 66th Midwest Theory Day. The event provided an opportunity for the theory community to meet up, share research findings, and initiate collaborations. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Lab-Theory of Computation  Theory  

The Center for Future Architectures Research Holds Annual Research Review at U-M

The Center for Future Architectures Research (C-FAR) held its Annual Research Review on Nov. 20-21 at the University of Michigan. The event featured research updates from some of the leading researchers in computer architecture on exciting new topics in the field. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Computer Architecture  Lab-Computer Engineering (CE Lab)  

Computer Architecture Researchers Debate Future for Von Neumann Architecture

On December 16, 2014, computer architecture researchers and scientists assembled in the debating chamber of the University of Cambridge Union for a hot debate on whether or not the end of the road has been reached for the Von Neumann Architecture. Chairing the debate was Trevor Mudge, Bredt Professor of Engineering at the University of Michigan. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Computer Architecture  Lab-Computer Engineering (CE Lab)  Mudge, Trevor  

Protean Code Allows Data Center Servers to Adapt to Changing Environments with Breakthrough Compiler Technology

A team of CSE researchers including Prof. Jason Mars, Prof Lingjia Tang, and graduate student Michael Laurenzano has developed Protean Code, a technique which efficiently and continuously transforms the way in which the application programs running in data centers are recompiled in order to adapt to changing compute environments. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Data Centers  Lab-Computer Engineering (CE Lab)  Mars, Jason  Tang, Lingjia  

The Future of Solar: $1.3M to Advance Organic Photovoltaics

The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Michigan Engineering Professor Stephen Forrests group a $1.35 million Next Generation Photovoltaics grant earlier this fall, aimed at advancing the practical viability of organic photovoltaics, a carbon-based version of solar technology that promises to radically change the way the suns energy is collected. Forrest is the Paul G. Goebel Professor of Engineering in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, and Physics and the former U-M Vice President of Research. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Forrest, Stephen  LEDs  Lab-Optics and Photonics  Lab-Solid State Electronics (SSEL)  Optics and Photonics  Optoelectronics  Solar Cell Technology  Solid-State Devices and Nanotechnology  Sustainability  

Scott Mahlke Elected IEEE Fellow for Contributions to Compiler Code Generation and Automatic Processor Customization

CSE Associate Chair and Prof. Scott Mahlke has been named an IEEE Fellow, Class of 2015, "for contributions to compiler code generation and automatic processor customization." [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Computer Architecture  Lab-Computer Engineering (CE Lab)  Mahlke, Scott  Parallel Computing  

CS Researchers Introduce New Certificate Authority in Aim to Securely Encrypt Every Website

Computer science researchers including Prof. J. Alex Halderman and CSE graduate student James Kasten have announced Let's Encrypt, a free, automated, and open certificate authority that is intended to bring secure encryption to the entire web. Let's Encrypt was developed with the Electronic Frontier Foundation and Mozilla and will debut in summer 2015. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Cryptography  Halderman, J. Alex  Lab-Software Systems  Networks and Networking  Security (Computing)  Security (national and personal safety)  

Computer Scientists Win Best Paper Award at ACM IMC for Analysis of the Impact of the Recent Heartbleed Vulnerability

A team of computer scientists including Prof. J. Alex Halderman, CSE graduate student and lead co-author Zakir Durumeric, and CSE graduate students James Kasten and David Adrian, has won a Best Paper Award at the 2014 ACM Internet Measurement Conference for their comprehensive, measurement-based analysis of the impact of the recent Heartbleed vulnerability, and the server operator community's response to it. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Graduate Students  Halderman, J. Alex  Lab-Software Systems  Networks and Networking  Security (Computing)  Security (national and personal safety)  Software Systems  

Yelin Kim Wins Best Student Paper Award at ACM Multimedia 2014 for Research in Facial Emotion Recognition

Yelin Kim has won the Best Student Paper Award at the 22nd ACM International Conference on Multimedia (ACM MM 2014) for her research in facial emotion recognition. The paper, "Say Cheese vs. Smile: Reducing Speech-Related Variability for Facial Emotion Recognition," was co-authored by her advisor, Prof. Emily Mower Provost. [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Graduate Students  Lab-Systems  Mower Provost, Emily  Signal and Image Processing   

Michigan and Prof. Forrest awarded photovoltaics R&D award from the U.S. Dept. of Energy SunShot Initiative

U-M was selected as part of the U.S. Dept. of Energy SunShot's "Next Generation Photovoltaics 3" program and was the only project awarded for organic photovoltaic ("OPV") research and development. Prof. Stephen Forrest said he very pleased to be able to continue his work on the SunShot Initiative. Forrest has achieved significant results in the area of organic photovoltaics, and believes they have the potential to redefine the cost structure of the solar industry and introduce solar power to untapped applications." [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Energy  Forrest, Stephen  Solar Cell Technology  Solid-State Devices and Nanotechnology  Sustainability  

Yang Liu Receives Best Applications Paper Award for Cyber Security Research in Phishing

Yang Liu, Ph.D Candidate in Electrical Engineering:Systems, earned a Best Applications Paper Award from the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics (DSAA2014) for his recent research on phishing. His paper detailed his use of big data analysis to solve a major problem of cyber security [Full Story]

Related Topics:  Big Data  Communications  Graduate Students  Liu, Mingyan  Security (Computing)  

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