Lecture 12: Libraries
--- class: center, middle # Week 12 --- # Announcements * Build systems/Make assignments due Monday April 4 * These are GitLab assignments! * Python assignments due Wednesday April 6 * Basic is a GitLab assignment * Advanced is a Gradescope assignment * Debugging assignments due Wednesday April 13 * Basic is a GitLab assignment * Advanced is a Gradescope assignment --- class: center, middle # Lecture 12: Libraries #### "How do I X?" #### "Just use Boost" --- # Overview * What are libraries? * Using existing libraries * Creating your own --- # What are libraries? * Libraries are collections of code and data that can be used by other programs. -- * Cool stuff written by other people so you don't have to -- * GUI (`libxcb`, `libX11`, `libgtk-3`, `libQtCore`) -- * Graphics (`libvulkan`, `libGL`) -- * File formats (`libpng`, `libjpeg`, `libmpeg2`) -- * ...and more -- * For this lecture we'll be focusing more on the context of compiled executables targeting the host architecture and OS (i.e. not targeting a VM like Java or C#), specifically for C and C++ -- * That being said, the idea of a library is fairly universal * C and C++ libraries happen to serve the backbone of a *complete* OS --- ## Types of libraries ### Source libraries * Source code for a library is provided * Pretty much exactly like a normal project -- ### Static libraries * Provided as an *archive* of pre-compiled object code * Files are named `lib
.a` e.g. `libcoolthing.a` * `.a` stands for "archive" -- * Executable is linked against this library and the library objects are tossed into the executable -- * "Static" because the library is a part of final executable and won't change wherever the executable goes * Incurs a size cost since the library is a part of the executable --- ## Types of libraries ### Dynamic/shared libraries * A collection of object code meant to be shared by multiple programs * One file `/lib/libm.so` shared among many programs that use it * Files are named `lib
.so` e.g. `libncurses.so` * `.so` stands for "shared object" (another name you see is "dynamic shared objects") * `.dylib` and `.dll` are macOS and Windows counterparts -- * Executable is linked against this library and the library is marked as a dependency in the executable * You can check this out using `readelf -d` or `ldd` on an executable * ELF is the file format used for object code and binary executables on Linux systems (as well as many other systems) --- ## Types of libraries ### Dynamic/shared libraries * "Dynamic" because these links and dependencies are resolved at program load time * Avoids the static linking size cost at the cost of being dependent on the system for the library * You sometimes see them packaged along with applications (ever see `.dll` files come with some program?), or they're listed as dependencies for your package manager to resolve --- # Using existing libraries ## Source libraries * Trivial: it's just more source code and add it as such * May have to include the headers in the include path (`-I`) * You might've run into this for Advanced - Make... * These are so uninteresting that I'm not going to mention them anymore --- # Using existing libraries ## Static and Dynamic Libraries * Using either is very similar * The `-l
` linker flag allows you to specify a library * Searches through `/lib`, `/usr/lib`, in directories listed by `/etc/ld.so.conf`, and directories in `LD_LIBRARY_PATH` * You can specify additional directories with `-L` -- * `-lm` for `libm.a` and `libm.so` * `-lpng` for `libpng.a` and `libpng.so` -- * Examples * `gcc -o myapp $(SRCS) -lm` * `gcc -o myapp $(SRCS) -Lsomedir -lstaticlib` * (under the hood, `gcc` is passing these linker flags to `ld`; put these at the end of the compilation command) --- ## Static and Dynamic Libraries ### But what if they conflict? * Note how `-l` doesn't care about static vs dynamic * `.so` has a higher precedence over `.a` -- * What if I want to link against `libm.a` and not `libm.so`? -- * `-l` has `:
` where you can specify a full filename, extension and all * e.g. `-l:libm.a` -- * `gcc` also has the `-static` flag * This is more of a nuclear option * Beware that this will make it _only link statically_: what if you don't have a static version of the C library? --- # Creating your own libraries ## Static libraries * Compile the objects * `gcc -c -o somecode.o somecode.c` -- * `-c`: compile but don't link, produces an object code file -- * Archive the objects * `ar rcs libmylib.a somecode.o morecode.o yaycode.o` -- * `ar` is an archival tool * `r`: command, insert files with replacement (in case the archive already exists) * `c`: option, "create the archive" * `s`: option, "write an object file index into the archive" --- # Creating your own libraries ## Dynamic libraries * Compile the objects * `gcc -c -fPIC -o somecode.o somecode.c` -- * `-fPIC`: compile as **p**osition **i**ndependent **c**ode -- * (there's also `-fpic`... if you want to go down the rabbit-hole) -- * The implications and reasoning behind PIC are best left for EECS 370 and EECS 482 -- * Link your the objects * `gcc -shared -o libmylib.so somecode.o morecode.o yaycode.o` * `-shared`: "produce a shared object" --- # Creating your own libraries ## Dynamic libraries * It gets deeper... http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Program-Library-HOWTO/shared-libraries.html * Versioning (*soname* fun) * Maintaining binary compatibility -- * Even deeper... https://www.akkadia.org/drepper/dsohowto.pdf * Really great read * Recommended by my interviewer during the interview for an internship --- class: center, middle # Questions? ## Happy April Fools' day!