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EECS 521: Solid State Devices

Instructor: Wei Lu (wluee@umich.edu)

Coverage
This is a graduate level course aimed to provide students a comprehensive understanding of solid state electronic devices, emphasizing on the challenges facing CMOS scaling and possible solutions. The course covers fundamental advanced topics in MOSFET devices, nanoscale planar and non-planar silicon transistor structures, and some promising research device structures.

Textbook(s)
Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices by Yuan Taur and Tak H. Ning
Cambridge University Press, 1st edition (October 13, 1998) ISBN: 0521559596

Lecture Notes

Schedule

Lecture 1 Introduction.

(ITRS’s PIDS and ERD chapters, Intro to Nanoscale devices). Free electron model

Lecture 2 Electrons in solids.

Density of states, Fermi surfaces, tight-binding model, energy bands, carrier density, (notes)

Lecture 3 Energy bands.

Si and GaAs lattice and band structures, valley degeneracy, HH and LH bands (Waser 3, Davies 2)

Lecture 4 Scattering and mobility

Envelope function, doping, scattering time approximation, mobility, phonons, screening  (Waser 3, Davies 2)

Lecture 5 MOS capacitor

Surface potential, inversion, exact charge solutions. C-V, interface charges, intro to MOSFET (Taur 2.3)

Lecture 6 MOSFET devices

Drain-current model based on gradual channel approx, I-V characteristics, channel mobility (Taur 3)

Lecture 7 MOSFET, beyond long channel model

Subthreshold region, Degradation of the effective mobility, finite inversion layer capacitance, Short-channel effects (DIBL and charge-sharing model) (Taur 1.2, 3.2, 2.4)

Lecture 8 High-field effects

Velocity saturation, impact ionization, LDD, band-to-band tunneling, GIDL, dielectric breakdown (Taur 2.4) New devices based on tunneling and impact ionization effects.

Lecture 9 Scaling rules and CMOS device design parameters

Scaling rules, threshold voltage design (Taur 4.2)

 

Lecture 10 SOI devices

 

Non-scaling factors, advantages of thin-body SOI electrostatics (Taur 4.1, 5.4, notes)

Lecture 11 multiple-gate MOSFETs

Thin-body MOSFET carrier transport, double gate devices, GAA devices, parasite resistance (

Lecture 12 strained Si technology and channel orientation

“Grand challenges” listed in ITRS, strained-Si technology, channel orientation

Lecture 13 gate oxide and high-k

Reliability of thin SiO2, oxide breakdown, high-k dielectrics, metal gates

Lecture 14 process-induced variability

Random dopant fluctuations, line edge roughness, metal grain granularity; associated variations in Vt and GIDL

Lecture 15 interface effects

Band bending at the interface, interface and surface states, quantum effects in inversion layer

Lecture 16 heterostructures and quantum confinement effects

Resonant tunneling devices (Shur 2.12), 3D, 2D, 1D structures, nanofabrication (reading)

Lecture 17 HEMT devices

modulation doping, HEMT,

Lecture 18 Device Simulation

Partial differential equation solutions, Monte Carlo, Using Synopsis Sentaurus on CAEN

Lecture 19 Boltzmann Transport Equation

Boltzmann transport equation, approximations, applications and limitations

Lecture 20 Single electron devices

Coulomb blockade phenomena, Single electron transistors (Waser 16)

Lecture 21 Ballistic transistors

Ballistic transport, quantum “contact” resistance, properties of ballistic FET (notes)

Lectures 22 Graphene and other 2D material devices

Band structure (gapless semiconductor), transport properties and devices (Waser 9, notes)

Lecture 23, Memories 1

DRAM and scaling, Flash memory and scaling, 3D flash

Lecture 24, emerging memory and architectures

Resistive memory and STT MRAM. Emerging memory and logic architectures (Waser 22, 23, 28, notes)

Lecture 25, BEOL and 3D integration

BEOL processes, TSV, chip-on-wafer, monolithic BEOL integration